In 1981 Barry Marshall, an Australian physician-trainee, was doing a rotation in gastroenterology at Royal Perth Hospital in Perth Australia. At Royal Perth he was seeking to take on a new project. He asked his boss, Dr. Tom Waters, if there was anything in the gastroenterology division of the hospital that he could start working on. Dr. Waters directed Barry to another physician Robin Warren who was also doing work in the division. The hospital had received patients who had severe stomach pains. At the time it was difficult to diagnose what such patients really had or what the cause of their pain was. The only thing that was known was that a biopsy of the stomachs of these patients revealed the presence of bacteria. What was this mysterious bacteria? The two of them decided to start exploring this question.